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They have applied all the reliable information corresponding to marketing strategy and profit generation. Working Process: Auto Profit System runs its activities with some simple steps. The initial step starts with the building process. Here, you will learn how to build up your webpage and maintain basic campaigning criteria. Synthetic graphites are widely used in many engineering applications, such as those in the metallurgical, nuclear and aerospace industries, and as electrodes for ion-lithium batheries 1.
They are manufactured using a blend of coke and pitch in different proportions. Graphites can be classified according to the raw material as coarse, medium or fine grain, and depending on their processing technique as extruded or molded grades 2.
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This will lead to microstructures characterized as being anisotropic in the case of extruded grades and isotropic in the case of molded grades. During processing, heat treatment temperature lead to changes in mechanical and thermal properties.
If the constituent phases, coke and binder coke have different properties, and the properties of the graphite are different from properties of the constituents, then graphites can be recognized as a particulated composites. Mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, flexural strength, shear strength, among others, are commonly used to characterize materials which will give their mechanical finger-printing. These test methods are acceptable for determining design allowables, for comparative purposes and also for quality control.
The test data depends on the test method, specimen design, fabrication method, and microstructure 3. Among all the mechanical tests that are used to characterize materials the uniaxial tension test should be avoided, particularly for brittle materials, which is the case of graphites, due to difficulties in making the relatively long specimens they are prone to fail during machining and possible damages caused during testing set-up.
In some other types of tests, e.
Although there are many test methods to measure shear properties of materials, still none of them are ideal for introducing real pure shear stresses in the specimens. This difficulty must be overcome by materials scientists involved in the development and characterization of materials. The most uniform and pure shear-stress state can be achieved in a material by applying torsional loading to a thin-walled tube specimen.
In the early sixties, N. Iosipescu, from Romania, developed a simple test to determine shear strength and shear modulus for metals, but the first published work in English language appeared only in the late sixties 4,5. Since then, the new in-plane shear test procedure was known as Iosipescu shear testing and the use of the new testing methodology was soon applied to isotropic and anisotropic materials, when the first reports appeared in the early seventies.
A lot of research has been accumulated in this specific testing procedure because it is simple to perform, requires small and easily fabricated specimens, and enables very accurate and reproducible results for shear modulus and shear strength 6,7. Since then, Iosipescu shear test has became very popular for the determination of shear strength and shear modulus for a broad range of materials 8.
By applying two forces couples that generate two opposite bending moments, a pure shear stress state is generated between two notches of the beam, as shown by the external force, shear-force and bending-moment diagrams of Figure 1. According to the Mohr circle diagram corresponding to this resulting stress state that acts in the specimen, the principal normal stresses act parallel to the lateral surface of the notches i. If the failure occurs perpendicular to this direction, which is caused by a principal normal tensile stress its value can be used to evaluate tensile strength.
This behavior is typical for brittle materials in which the deformations as well as the distortions are particularly small, up to the failure load, and eventual geometric changes during the tests are negligible. Finite-element analysis of the test configuration has been object by several authors to investigate the influence of stress distributions and for validation of the Iosipescu test 6,9. Cracks and pores are common features that are found in graphite microstructure. These defects are, in fact, undesirable structural parameters that significantly reduces the mechanical properties of the material, mainly the tensile strength.
Since they can not be avoided, these microstructural features and the inherent brittleness of graphites gives rise to an appreciable scatter in the results of strength properties. Weibull distribution statistics is currently a well established statistical tool to evaluate the significant variability of the mechanical test results which takes place in brittle materials and will be applied to the data collected from the Iosipescu shear test. The apparent density of HLM graphite is 1. All the sample specimens were taken parallel to extrusion direction. The amount of porosity was analysed by mercury intrusion porosimetry in a Autoscan Quantachrome Porosimeter.
Surface of the fractured specimens were analysed by an Oxford Leo Vpi scanning electron microscope. The HLM 85 graphite is suitable for use at high temperature applications and it is extensively used as rocket nozzle throat inserts. Tensile tests were performed on HLM graphite, with the applied load parallel to extrusion direction, following procedure described in the ASTM C Standard by using the Instron universal testing machine Dimensions of the tensile coupon are shown in Figure 2 and the cross head speed was set at 0. Ltd, attached at center of the specimen, Equation 1, using the experiemental values of the transverse and the longitudinal strains e , as following:.
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The Iosipescu test set-up. As for the tensile coupons, the Iosipescu shear specimens were machined parallel to the extrusion direction x of the graphite cylinders, as seen in Figure 3. Thirty two identical specimens were tested to failure. The cross head speed was 0.arervijuststor.tk
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The sketch of the strain-gage position in the Iosipescu specimen is show in Figure 3. During testing a pure shear loading is generated in the zero bending moment section of the beam and the shear stress has its maximum value at the cross section ac. To prevent non-perpendicularity of fixture-sample contacts to the Iosipescu rig, all specimens were machined with 13 mm thickness, following suggestion of Pierron 6.
Ltd were properly attached to in the samples, as shown in Figure 3. The Weibull modulus from the Iosipescu shear results was calculated. The determination of Weibull modulus m considers the assumption of a constant volume for all samples tested, and the results is a straight line equation, when plotting experimental failure stress values s as a function of cumulative probability of failure P , according to Equation 3 13 :.
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The Weibull modulus m is obtained by linear regression. The Weibull modulus is a parameter that can indicates the level and how homogeneous is the distribution of the failure stresses s i in a material. Ductile materials, in which the defects are reduced and homogeneously distributed, present a high Weibull modulus e. So, the lower is the scatter in the failure stresses, the higher is the Weibull modulus of a material. Results and Discussion. The Figure 4 shows a typical optical micrography of a polished surface of the HLM graphite. HLM graphite is formed by a binder phase and elongated needled-coke grains.
As a consequence HLM graphite is anisotropic in nature. A broad range of pores and microcracks can be found in the microstructure and they are represented by the dark areas in Figure 4.
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The reflection interference colors in graphites shows that the binder phase contains regions of common basal plane orientation and they exhibits a broad variation in size and shape. This is the case for HLM 85 graphite. In fact, the initial medium grain size for this graphite from manufacturer's data sheet is 0. As any other ceramic-like material, the mechanical properties for graphites are mainly influenced by raw materials grain size and distribution, porosity, viscosity, etc , processing conditions and preferred orientation of crystallites.
Figure 5 shows plots of the tensile stress as a function of strain for the tensile coupons in the direction parallel to extrusion x, which corresponds to the sample long axis. The stress-strain curves are non-linear, and they show that elastic modulus decrease with an increase in stress. Great little coupon book kamloops. Osha discount code. London aquarium discount code. Fragrance discount codes uk. Hbo discount code uk flooring direct.
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